Early Christian, Jewish, and Byzantine Art
Art History 2nd Edition Marilyn Stokstad
This chapter and the next deal with the origins of art of the major monotheistic religions of the West and the Middle East. Coverage begins with the scant remains of Jewish and Christian art in the Middle East and then concentrates on Christian art in Rome before and after the time of Constantine. Christian art continues to shift in official Roman art of the fourth century (last chapter) and evolves into a new style, as Christianity becomes the official religion of the old Roman world. Pay attention to the emergence of a distinct culture in the eastern part of the old empire--the successor to Rome--the Byzantine Empire. Goals for this chapter include:
- Gain an appreciation for the intermingling of pagan, Jewish, and other traditions in the formation of Early Christian art.
- Watch the consolidation of power around Constantinople and the ebb and flow of consolidated power and a unified artistic tradition in the western part of the old Roman world.
- Learn about the two main types of Christian church architecture: longitudinally planned and centrally planned church buildings.
- Grasp the essentials of the idea of the icon as a sacred image but not an idol.
- See the influence of Byzantine art and culture take root in Eastern Europe as the Byzantine Empire was ending.
- Learn the basic chronological divisions of Byzantine art history into three major periods.
•The “transformers” begins as one thing and changes into another.
•pagan architectural and iconographic forms are “transformed” by Christians to facilitate their new view of the world and the new requirements of their worship.
"The Four Fs” of Hieratic Art."
•basic characteristics of Byzantine figural representation.
The “Four Fs” stand
(floating refers to the way the bodies in Byzantine mosaics and paintings seem to hover, appearing to be weightless.)